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Aqeedah Summary

"Belief in the Day of Judgment and Qadr"




1.    What are the effects of believing in this pillar, particularly the Minor Signs of the Hour, on our life?


The minor signs of the Hour remind us of the truthfulness of the Messengers, and ALLAHís knowledge of the future. It also helps the believers to be patient for the Final Justice of ALLAH.


2.    Does belief in Qadr really  cancel the Muslims freedom of choice and resolution?


The correct belief in Qadar strengthens the Muslimís freedom of choice and resolution by causing him to resign himself on the path that pleases ALLAH, in spite of any difficulty or misfortune.


3.    Compare the concept of Qadar in Islam and Western concepts such as Fate, Fatalism, and predestination?


The Western Concept of Fate is placed as independent of the Creator, whereas the Justice and Wisdom of ALLAH control Fate in Islam. Fatalism is the idea that manís future is controlled by blind forces that are indifferent to his welfare, whereas, in Islam, ALLAH is the only one in control and He decides the destiny of all creatures, moreover, he rewards men beyond their deserts. The Western concept of Predestination leads people to believe that they are impotent creatures and nothing is required of them.



Belief in the Day of Judgment and Qadar


Many details of life after death are found in the Qurían and sound Prophetic Traditions. These details are supported by the consensus of Muslims. We should believe in the descriptions they contain and we should not elaborate outside of them.


There are different stages of the life after death that deal with accounting for oneís deeds. The Grave, and its rewards or punishments, is called the Life of Barzakh (or Partition). The Day of Judgment is the Resurrection from the graves. The Final Abode is Paradise or Hell.


The Day of Judgment is mentioned often in the Qu'ran, which keeps people from being over concerned with worldly comfort or misfortune. The Qur'an places the belief in the Day of Judgment and the deeds that result from it as righteousness.


The belief in the Final Judgment of mankindís deeds pairs with belief in the Justice of ALLAH, and the path of righteousness. Disbelieving means assuming all things are created in vain; that good will not be rewarded, and bad will not be punished; hence it denies ALLAHís Attributes and path of righteousness.


Disbelievers often consider Resurrection as too much of a change of their surroundings to be possible. They are answered with the fact that ALLAH, the Creator of things from naught, can create what the mind cannot picture, and can create anything. Moreover, they are shown the Resurrection will take place with phenomenon similar to what happens every day in the Natural World. (36:78 to 81) (22:5 to 7)


Hence, the mind, the human nature(Fitra), the Messengers, the Books, and the Creation support the belief in the Day of Judgment.  


Details about Life after Death


The Grave


The punishment or reward of a person begins at death, and continues in the grave. After burial, ALLAH sends an Angel to every person, who asks him who is his God and his Prophet and what is his Religion. The believer replies that ALLAH is his God, Muhammad (PBUH) is his Prophet, and Islam is his religion, after which his grave is expanded and made comfortable. Whereas the disbeliever, or hypocrite replies that he doesnít know and is tortured. These rewards or punishments are given even to one who isnít buried.



The Day of Resurrection


On the Day of Resurrection, ALLAH will judge the deeds of mankind directly. To signal it's beginning, a trumpet will be blown which will make the Heavens the Earth swoon, and all beings therein perish. After some time, it will be blown again, and mankind will be resurrected. The Gathering will begin, and everyone will assemble in a place and await ALLAHís judgment of their deeds (Qurían 19:85-86, Sahih Muslim no. 6844). The people will be sweating, naked, and in discomfort and anxiety. The Prophets (PBUH) will be asked to pray that ALLAH hastens His decision. The Prophets, in turn, will tell the people to request Muhammadís (PBUH) intercession, which will be accepted. Hence reckoning will begin, and all their actions, thoughts, and conditions will be received as a book. Those who will be in Paradise will receive their books in their right hands, and ALLAH will hide and pardon their faults. Those due for punishment, will receive their books in their left hands, and thenceforward will be questioned sternly about their life.


There are more details provided about the Day of Resurrection, such as the Cistern granted to Muhammad and his followers for drink; the Balance---a scale for weighing peopleís deeds; the Bridge, which the believers will cross, while the disbelievers will fall from it into Hell Fire; and Paradise and Hell, the final abode for believers and disbelievers.


The Portents and Signs of the Hour (Day of Resurrection)


The signs of the Hour can be classed into Major and Minor Signs. The Minor Signs forecast special events, and a general decrease in morality, while the Major Signs foreshadow the larger changes of the spiritual and physical world.  The hour will not come until the following occur: The Dajjal will claim that he is God and will be accompanied by miracles that will cause disbelievers to follow him; The Beast will speak to mankind about their folly for not believing in ALLAH; Jesus will return and rule under an Islamic government, kill the Dajjal, and then die; The Gog and Magog will come and spread mischief on earth; and the sun will rise from the West. After the appearance of the Beast, the Dajjal, or the sun rising in the West--- ALLAH will not accept faith, good works, and repentance from the disbelievers (and nor from the Muslims, according to some commentators).


Paradise or Hell


ALLAH created the abodes of Paradise and Hell before he created man, and they will be remain forever. The abode of the Believers is Paradise, they will receive all that they ask for. ALLAH has prepared special pleasures for them, such as fruit, meat, and companions of their choice.  Whereas the Disbelievers will stay in Hell, where they will be tormented forever.



Faith In ALLAHís Predestination and Fate


Predestination implies ALLAHís knowledge about the future of his creation, whereas Fate implies the many things (sustenance, choices, opportunities, etc.) that come into manís sphere of existence. Both Predestination and Fate are included in the word "Qadr". To believe in Qadr means believing that ALLAH knows the future, and that He has determined the outcome of all things. Also, it means believing that the influence of the Creatorís will is over and above the designs of His creations.


The belief in Qadr has four elements of belief about ALLAHís knowledge and power.

Concerning His knowledge:

1.    ALLAH knows all the good, and evil circumstances of the future. That is, He knows the blessings and misfortunes His creatures would have, and their good and bad choices.

2.    This Divine knowledge was written in the Book of Decrees (Al Lauh al Mahfuz, see Qurían 22:70, 57:22)

Concerning his power:

3.    Nothing can happen in the Heavens or the earth without the Will of ALLAH.

4.    ALLAH likes Belief and good deeds, but he has given men power over their actions.

  The disbelievers often suggest Predestination and Fate means sinning is due to ALLAHís commandment. They are answered by addressing their incorrect ideas about ALLAH. To believe in ALLAH is to recognize that He is Just; hence he doesnt command evil or like evil from His creatures. Evil a feature of created things. Evil is allowed to exist, but it is not a product of ALLAHís decrees, hence the effects of evil on the righteous are replaced with good.  Hence, It is those who choose evil, and shut out the good, that are punished by ALLAH.

 Consequently, rather than using his free will to follow the course ALLAH is pleased with, he is pursuing an issue of the Unseen only known by ALLAH.

Some people think that Predestination and Fate makes the rule of cause and effect impotent. They are answered  with the fact that ALLAH created and regulates both the causes and their effects. Hence, to forego what is a cause of good is to make oneself worthy of punishment.  To deem that through adopting a certain path, that the effect is inevitable, is to deny ALLAHís power.

The believersí faith in ALLAHís predestination gives contentment to the heart and helps them to be steadfast. They are not grief stricken about their past, or worried over the future;  they understand that everything is done according to the Justice and Wisdom of ALLAH. Their only role is to pursue the course that pleases Him.